Ammonium chloride NH4Cl we are having technical and commercial grade
Molecular formula : NH4Cl
Molar mass : 53.491 g/mol
Appearance : White solid (hygroscopic)
Odor : odorless
Density : 1.5274 g/cm3
Melting point : 338 °C (decomposes)
Solubility in water : 29.7 g/100 mL (0 °C)
37.2 g/100 mL (20 °C)
77.3 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility in alcohol : 0.6 g/100 mL (19 °C)
Acidity (pKa) : 9.245
Refractive index (nD) : 1.642
Thermo chemistry Std enthalpy of formation ΔfHo298 : −314.55 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy So298 94.85 J K−1 mol−1 
MSDS : ICSC 1051
EU Index : 017-014-00-8
EU classification : Harmful (Xn)
Irritant (Xi) : R-phrases R22, R36
S-phrases : (S2), S22
Flash point Non-flammable LD50 1650 mg/kg, oral (rat)
Hydroxyl ammonium chloride
Ammonium chloride NH4Cl (also Sal ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia. The aqueous ammonium chloride solution is mildly acidic. Sal ammoniac is a name of natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. The mineral is especially common on burning coal dumps (formed by condensation of coal-derived gases), but also on some volcanoes.
The substance occurs naturally in volcanic regions, forming on volcanic rocks near fume-releasing vents. It is a by-product of the Solvay process used to produce sodium carbonate.
Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by reacting ammonia (NH3) with hydrogen chloride (HCl). As these chemicals are corrosive, this process has to be performed in vessels lined with nonreactive materials (e.g. glass, enamel, lead, or PVC).
NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl
This reaction can occur if poorly sealed bottles of household ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) and hydrochloric acid are stored in close proximity, leading to crystals forming around the openings of the bottles (mostly appear on those leaking more slowly).
Ammonium chloride appears to sublime but this process actually involves decomposition into ammonia and hydrogen chloride gas.
NH4Cl → NH3 + HCl
Ammonium chloride may be reacted with a hydroxide base, e.g. sodium hydroxide, to release ammonia gas: NH4Cl + NaOH → NH3 + NaCl + H2O
If test tubes of ammonia solution and hydrochloric acid are brought close together, a smoke composed of microcrystal’s of ammonium chloride will slowly rise out of the tube.
Ammonium chloride crystal(s).
CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS
Ammonium chloride dissolved in water becomes an acid. Ammonium chloride is used to produce low temperatures in cooling baths. For example, the zero point of Fahrenheit temperature scale is determined by placing the thermometer in a mixture of ice, water, and ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride solutions with ammonia are used as buffer solutions.
BIOLOGY AND AGRICULTURE
In biological applications ammonium chloride acts as a nitrogen source and is used in fertilizers, as a feed supplement for cattle and as an ingredient in nutritive media for yeast microbiological organisms.
Ammonium chloride is an ingredient in fireworks and safety and contact explosives.
TEXTILE AND LEATHER
Ammonium chloride is used in the textile and leather industry in dyeing, tanning textile printing and to luster cotton.
Ammonium chloride is used as a flux in preparing metals to be tin coated, galvanized or soldered. It works as a flux by cleaning the surface of work pieces by reacting with the metal oxides at the surface to form a volatile metal chloride. It is sold in blocks at hardware stores for use in cleaning the tip of a soldering iron and can also be included in solder as flux.
Ammonium chloride is used as an expectorant in cough medicine. Its expectorant action is caused by irritative action on the bronchial mucosa.
In several countries ammonium chloride is known as sal ammoniac and used as food additive. The E number for ammonium chloride used as a food additive is E510.
Sal ammoniac is used to spice up dark sweets called salty liquorice and in the flavouring Salmiakki Koskenkorva for vodkas. Sal ammoniac is also used in baking to give cookies a very crisp texture.